Dynamics of El Niño and the monsoons

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of inter-annual climate variability while monsoons impact lives of billions of people. Both are among the fundamental issues and central topics of climate studies.

Related publications:


Ng C.H.J., Vecchi G.A, Muñoz Á.G., Murakami H. An asymmetric rainfall response to ENSO in East Asia. Climate Dynamics. 52(3-4) 2302-2318. doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4253-9

Cai, W., Santoso, A., Wang, G. et al. ENSO and greenhouse warming. Nature Clim Change5, 849–859 (2015). doi:10.1038/nclimate2743

Cai, W., Wang, G., Santoso, A. et al. Increased frequency of extreme La Niña events under greenhouse warming. Nature Clim Change 5, 132–137 (2015). doi:10.1038/nclimate2492

Cai, W., Borlace, S., Lengaigne, M. et al. Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming. Nature Clim Change 4, 111–116 (2014). doi:10.1038/nclimate2100

Lengaigne, M., Vecchi, G.A. Contrasting the termination of moderate and extreme El Niño events in coupled general circulation models. Clim Dyn 35, 299–313 (2010). doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0562-3

Vecchi, G.A. and Wittenberg, A.T. (2010), El Niño and our future climate: where do we stand?. WIREs Clim Chg, 1: 260-270. doi:10.1002/wcc.33

Vecchi, G. A., & Harrison, D. E. (2006). The Termination of the 1997–98 El Niño. Part I: Mechanisms of Oceanic Change, Journal of Climate19(12), 2633-2646. doi:10.1175/JCLI3776.1

Vecchi, G. A. (2006). The Termination of the 1997–98 El Niño. Part II: Mechanisms of Atmospheric Change, Journal of Climate19(12), 2647-2664. doi:10.1175/JCLI3780.1

Vecchi, G. A.,  Wittenberg, A. T., and  Rosati, A. (2006),  Reassessing the role of stochastic forcing in the 1997–1998 El Niño, Geophys. Res. Lett.,  33, L01706, doi:10.1029/2005GL024738.

Vecchi, G. A., Rosati, A., & Harrison, D. E. (2004). Setting the timing of El Nino termination. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society85(8), 1065-1066.

Vecchi, G. A., and  Harrison, D. E. (2003),  On the termination of the 2002–03 El Niño event, Geophys. Res. Lett.,  30, 1964, doi:10.1029/2003GL017564.

Harrison, D. E., & Vecchi, G. A. (1999). On the termination of El Niño. Geophysical Research Letters26(11), 1593-1596.


Jacobson, T.W.P., Yang, W., Vecchi, G.A. et al. Impact of volcanic aerosol hemispheric symmetry on Sahel rainfall. Clim Dyn 55, 1733–1758 (2020). doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05347-7

Baldwin, J.W., Vecchi, G.A. & Bordoni, S. The direct and ocean-mediated influence of Asian orography on tropical precipitation and cyclones. Clim Dyn 53, 805–824 (2019). doi:10.1007/s00382-019-04615-5

Strong, J. D. O., Vecchi, G. A., & Ginoux, P. (2015). The Response of the Tropical Atlantic and West African Climate to Saharan Dust in a Fully Coupled GCM, Journal of Climate28(18), 7071-7092. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00797.1

Vecchi, G.A. and Harrison, D.E. (2004). Interannual Indian Rainfall Variability and Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies. In Earth's Climate (eds C. Wang, S. Xie and J. Carton). doi:10.1029/147GM14

Vecchi, G. A., & Harrison, D. E. (2002). Monsoon Breaks and Subseasonal Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Bay of Bengal, Journal of Climate15(12), 1485-1493. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3C1485:MBASSS%3E2.0.CO;2